These cells were completely isolated from other cells of Hoa Lo prison to prevent death row inmates from communicating with the outside.

With a population of over 1,200,000 (2009 census), the Muong live mainly in Hoa Binh where the ancestral cen-ters of Bi, Vang, Thang, and Dong are located and also with other communities living in Thanh Hoa, Phu Tho and Son La.


Dong Ho is well-known for its hand-made woodblock prints, used especially for Tet. Woodblocks are printed on do traditional paper, covered with a layer of powdered shell.

The religion of Four Worlds is very popular, especially in northern Vietnam. The system of spirits is imagined like an imperial court ruling the four worlds: Sky, Earth, Water and Forests.

The practice of chewing betel and blackening teeth has a long tradition.

The lacquer is a resin of the lacquer tree planted mostly in the North of Vietnam. They make an incision on the trunk of the lacquer tree to have the resin like the latex of the rubber tree.

The communal house has a significant meaning in villages. It is the largest and the most spectacular architecture, showing power and talent of the com-munity.

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